Occupational Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. TBIs can range from mild to severe and are often categorized based on the extent of damage and the symptoms experienced. Common causes of traumatic brain injuries include falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and violence.


There are three primary types of Traumatic Brain Injury:


TBI can have various causes, including:


Sports Injuries: 

Penetrating Injuries: 

Risk Factors

The risk factors for TBI include age, gender, motor vehicle accidents, falls, substance abuse and previous TBI. 


Common symptoms of TBI include: 

Occupational Therapy Specialism

Occupational Therapists who specialise in assessing and treating people who have had a TBI are based in a branch of Occupational Therapy called Neurorehabilitation.

Common Difficulties associated with TBI

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can result in a range of difficulties and challenges, which may vary depending on the severity and location of the injury. Common difficulties associated with traumatic brain injury include:

Cognitive Impairments

Communication Challenges

Physical Impairments

Sensory Issues

Emotional and Behavioral Changes

Sleep Disturbances

Headaches and Pain


Difficulty with Activities of Daily Living

Reduced Social Participation

How can Occupational Therapy help?

Occupational therapy (OT) plays a crucial role in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of occupational therapy is to help individuals regain independence and improve their ability to perform daily activities. Here are some ways in which occupational therapy can assist individuals with traumatic brain injury:

Assessment and Goal Setting

Cognitive Rehabilitation

Adaptive Equipment and Assistive Technology

Motor Skills and Coordination

Sensory Integration

Community Reintegration

Psychosocial Support

Vocational Rehabilitation

Education and Training

Collaboration with Other Professionals

Academic Articles